Friday, January 31, 2014

R' Simon Jacobson Speaking in Monsey Tonight


Pizza at Avos U'Banim Tomorrow Night

In honor of Rosh Chodesh Adar there will be pizza after the Avos U'banim learning program this Motzei Shabbos,

The program is from 7:00 to 8:00 PM at the Tzemach Tzedek shul.

If you are interested in sponsoring the evening and have the zchus of all of the children learning, please call Rabbi Yisroel Shusterman at 917-282-3505.



MBCM Dinner This Motzei Shabbos

The Monsey Beis Chaya Mushka dinner is taking place tomorrow evening, Motzei Shabbos.

Please reserve at www.monseybcm.com/dinner.

This is Monsy Beis Chaya Muska's main fundraiser. Please support your local mosad.

The Dinner will be buffet and fleishig and all meat and chicken is CHK. Please come and enjoy an entertaining Melaveh Malka with great food and an inspiring and entertaining speaker.

Parsha Perspective

By Rabbi Yisroel Shusterman, Dean, Cheder Chabad of Monsey

The very first United Jewish Appeal was launched this week. This week's Torah reading, Terumah (Shmos [Exodus] 25:1-27:19) deals with the first fundraising campaign in history. Moses initiated it in order to build the Sanctuary in the wilderness as well as all to acquire all the materials needed for the special utensils required for the sacred services. This is, therefore, a good time to talk about the art of giving.

The holy Rabbi Israel of Ruzhin said that while some people claim that "If you give you are a fool and if you take you are clever," Jewish tradition teaches us that those who give and think they are only giving are, in fact, the fools. But those who give and understand that they are also receiving, at the same time, are truly wise.

The truth is that in giving, we actually receive more than we give. And not only a slice of heaven in far-away paradise, but even in the here and now. Certainly, in our relationships--whether family, business or social--our generosity is often reciprocated and we find the other party responding in kind. But it goes beyond giving in order to get back. The very fact that we have done something good, that which is right and noble, gives us a sense of satisfaction. "The takers of the world may eat better. But the givers of the world sleep better."

This explains the unusual expression in G-d's words to Moses in our Parshah: v'yikchu li terumah--"and they shall take for me a contribution." Why take? Surely, give would be the more correct term. But because in giving we are also receiving, the word take is also appropriate. For the same reason we find that the Hebrew expression for "acts of loving kindness" ("gemilut chassadim") is always in the plural form. Because every time someone performs a single act of kindness, at least two people are benefiting--the receiver and also the giver.

I have seen people over the years who were good people, giving people, who shared and cared for others. Then, after years of being givers, they stopped. Why? They became frustrated at the lack of appreciation for all their hard work. After all they had done for others, they never even received a simple "Thank You." So they were disappointed, disillusioned, and in some instances, even bitter. They resigned from public life and from whatever community services they were involved in.

How sad that they didn't realize that even if human beings are notoriously unappreciative, G-d Almighty takes note of every act of kindness we perform. And He responds with infinite blessings in his own way. Our sages taught that if we express regret over the good that we have done, we might well forfeit all the merits we would have otherwise deserved.

So whenever you think you're a big deal because you did something for a good cause, remember; you are receiving much more than you are giving. Let us all be givers and be blessed for it.

(Excerpts from Chabad.org - by Rabbi Yossy Goldman)

Thursday, January 30, 2014

Mazel Tov Kinds!

Mazel tov to Yaakov and Shulamis Kind on the birth of a granddaughter born to Miriam and Chaim Benoliel.

Simpson Shalom Zachor

Rabbi Benyomin and Lakey Simpson will be making a Shalom Zachor in honor of their newborn son this Friday night at their home 30 South Monsey Road.

Rosh Chodesh Adar Aleph Farbrengen Tonight

There will be a farbrengen following the 9:30 PM Maariv minyan at Tzemach Tzedek tonight, Thursday, in honor of Rosh Chodesh Adar Aleph.

Tuesday, January 28, 2014

Box Tops Bonus Opportunity


Collecting box tops provides Cheder Chabad with much needed funds.

Between February 2-8, ShopRite will be having a box top bonus special.  When purchasing any six General Mills box top items, at checkout you receive a 25 box top bonus coupon.

This can provide the Cheder with a great boost at no cost to you!

Please help our school, while doing your ShopRite shopping.

If you have any questions please don't hesitate to call Varda Friedman at 845-290-1225 or Mrs. Breuer  at 845-356-1213 ext. 200.

**Purchases must be made in a single shopping visit.  You  must use your price plus card at checkout.  If you don't have one, you can go to customer service. This entitles you to all sales and specials.

**If you do not have children in the Cheder to send it in with, give us a call and we will send you a pre-addressed envelope.

For complete rules, click here.

Mazel Tov Simpsons!

Mazel tov to Rabbi Benyomin and Lakey Simpson on the birth of a baby boy!


Shifra and Puah arranges meals for mothers of newborn children in our community. If you are able to cook a meal, please sign up on MealTrain or contact Karen Schild at 845-354-4898 or karenschild@yahoo.com.

Sunday, January 26, 2014

Friday, January 24, 2014

R' Manis Friedman Speaking Tonight in Monsey


"Thank You!" from Avos U'Banim

The weekly Motzei Shabbos Avos U'banim Father/Son Learning Program wants to thank all of our weekly sponsors who helped provide the weekly raffle prize and refreshments to all participants in this weekly learning program - particularly to Mrs. M. Kagan, Rabbi S. B. Hendel, Rabbi M. Liberow, the Amram Family, Mr. Y. N. Zeiler who sponsored an evening. A very special thanks to Dr. Eli Neiman and family who sponsored multiple learning evenings for family birthdays and events.

It is indeed a real Yiddishe Nachas and very inspiring  to watch a full shul of fathers and their sons learning and spending quality time together.  

Anyone wanting to sponsor such a beautiful evening and have the great zchus and merit of such community Torah learning, please contact Rabbi Shusterman at 917-282-3505  or yshusterman@chedermonsey.org.

Thursday, January 23, 2014

Parsha Perspective

By Rabbi Yisroel Shusterman, Dean, Cheder Chabad of Monsey

Does G‑d care if I cheat on my taxes? Am I going to be a better husband/wife/parent if I keep kosher?

This week's Torah portion—Mishpatim (Shmos [Exodus] 21:1-24:18) deals with many of the civil laws and Mitzvot of the Torah, including issues of torts, theft, business relationships, as well as Jewish holidays  etc.

The 613 mitzvot ("commandments") of the Torah are commonly divided into two categories: 1) laws that govern the relationship "between man and G‑d" (bein adam la-makom); and 2) laws that legislate the proper conduct "between man and his fellow" (bein adam la-chavero). Even the Ten Commandments were inscribed on two separate tablets, one containing commandments such as "I am G‑d your G‑d" and "Remember the day of Shabbat," and the other proclaiming laws like "Do not kill" and "Do not steal".

But is this division a legitimate one? On the one hand, we have the aforementioned two tablets (though one still needs to explain how "honor your father and your mother" ended up on the "between man and G‑d" side). On the other hand, we have the famous story the Talmud tells about the prospective convert to Judaism who came to Hillel asking to be taught the entire Torah while standing on one foot. "What is hateful to yourself," said Hillel, "do not do to your fellow. This is the entire Torah; the rest is commentary." (But how is putting on Tefillin a commentary on "Love your follow"?) This would include as well that helping my neighbor shovel his car out of a snow bank proclaims the oneness of G‑d and disavows the existence of any other gods beside Him!)

The masters of the Kabbalah insist that, ultimately, there is no essential difference between the Torah's "civil" laws and its so-called "religious" laws. Each mitzvah, whether it's visiting the sick or waving a lulav on Sukkot, is a facilitator of the flow of life-force between G‑d and creation -- a flow that sustains all of the creation and fulfills the divine intent in creating it in the first place. So a crime against G‑d (which causes a disruption in the flow) is a crime against all of His creations; and a crime against a fellow creature is also a crime against G‑d (for the same reason). A kindness to a fellow is a kindness to G‑d, as it contributes to the realization of His desire in creation; and a positive "personal" relationship with G‑d has a positive effect on His relationship with creation as a whole and every citizen of His world.

So why did G‑d deliver His Torah to us in two tablets? Because He wants us to understand that there are two sides to life. Life means meditating and praying, as well as digging neighbors' cars out of snow banks.

G‑d is the absolute oneness, and human life is the endeavor to express His oneness. But true oneness is not uniformity. True oneness tolerates, indeed embraces, various and even opposite particulars. For there is no greater expression of oneness than the ability to see opposites reflected in each other.

So G‑d divided the divinely-ordained blueprint for life into a "between man and G‑d" column and a "between man and man" column. And then He granted us the ability to see each side reflected in the other. To see a fellow's needs peering out to us from the pages of our prayer book. And to see G‑d's face smiling to us from a beggar's mumbled gratitude.

(From Chabad.org - Rabbi Yanki Tauber)

May you have a meaningful and uplifting Shabbos!


Women's Melava Malka with R' Manis Friedman This Motzei Shabbos


Special Day to Contribute to Mosdos with the Rebbetzin's Name

Dear Members of Anash שי',

Today is the 26th yahrzeit of Rebbetzin Chaya Mushka A'H.

The Rebbe asked that tzedakah should be given "liluy nishmosoh" to mosdos which honor her memory. Monsey Beis Chaya Mushka is the only moisad in Monsey named after the Rebbetzin.

Our dinner is coming up in less than 10 days, and today is a propitious time to make your reservation, put an Ad in the dinner journal or just donate at www.monseybcm.com/dinner.

In the merit of your generous Tzedakah and participation, may we all be finally blessed with the Geulah Shleimah.

Sincerely,

Rabbi Chaim Dovid Kagan


Thursday, January 16, 2014

MBCM 6th Annual Dinner




Parsha Perspective

By Rabbi Yisroel Shusterman, Dean, Cheder Chabad of Monsey

This week’s Torah reading, Yitro (Shmos [Exodus] 18:1–20:23), tells of the momentous event of the Revelation of G-d on Mt Sinai and the giving of the Torah. Interestingly, the Midrash tells us, that at the time of the giving of the Torah, as thunderous as G-d’s voice may have been, there was no echo.

Echoes are a naturally occurring phenomenon formed by sound waves bouncing off obstructions. Every sound has an echo as, sooner or later, the sound wave emanating from the noise-source meets an immovable barrier and is reflected.

The one exception to this hard and fast scientific principle was when G‑d descended on Mt. Sinai to declaim the Ten Commandments to His awestruck creations. Every living being froze in anticipation and adoration as the awesome sounds of G‑d resonated throughout the universe.

Resonated maybe, but there was no echo. The greatest sound and light show in history was a strictly one-time production with no residuals or encore. He came, He spoke, we heard.

Audio transmissions have physical characteristics: loudness, frequency and pitch. When humans produce sound, the audio transmissions have physical characteristics: loudness, frequency and pitch. Upon being transformed into an electronic format they can be captured on magnetic tape or burnt onto a CD. Even if diced into fragments and transmitted through space via radio waves, they still consist of basic physical characteristics and must be unscrambled and re-presented in the original format in order for a human recipient to process them as intelligible information.

The most faithful Hi-Fidelity system in the world, however, will not process and accurately present all of the original communication. The natural obstructions ever present in every environment will distort, reflect and disguise some small part of the message. Unavoidably, some sound waves will be bounced back, rejected by the recipient as it were, and be lost to the listener as an echo.

When G‑d speaks there is no echo. When G‑d communicates there is no need to transform it to another medium. G‑d broadcasts to every one of us, on the frequency best adapted for us to integrate and utilize every last fraction of the message. Nothing can stand in its way, nothing bounces back and no part of it is rejected as unsuitable.

When a Jew learns Torah, G‑d is speaking directly to him. By opening oneself up to the undifferentiated word of G‑d, we accept G‑dliness into ourselves. The Torah permeates our very being and transforms our bodies and lives into a sounding board broadcasting G‑d's infinite message to the rest of the world.

(Excerpts from Chabad.org - by Rabbi Elisha Greenbaum)

May you have a meaningful and uplifting Shabbos!

Tuesday, January 14, 2014

MBCM Girls Learn in Honor of Yud Shvat

If you entered Monsey Beis Chaya Mushka during the past two weeks, you would have noticed clusters of girls gathered during every recess and break, learning.

Our grand Hachana for Yud Shvat has had the girls busy from morning until night at any free moment learning letters of the Rebbe, Sichos, and Maamarim. After surpassing the goal of learning 1,000 “Oisiyos” of Chassidus during their free time (not including anything learned in formal class time) the Hachana committee raised the goal to 5,000 ”oisiyos” by Yud Shvat!

We are so proud of our MBCM students for realizing this goal - 5,000 oisiyos of Sichos, Maamarim, and letters of the Rebbe in  Hebrew,Yiddish and English were learned by the girls during their free time!

On the wall there was a a long chart filled in numerous colors tracking the achievements and it was filled in completely.

On Wednesday, the school was rewarded with a special trip to the Ohel in honor of Yud Shvat followed by an amazing farbrengen with Rabbi Korn in his newly built Chabad house in Manhattan.

A big thank you to the students who worked so hard to arrange this Hachana program and the prizes. Yasher Koach to all the students. Every single girls' participation counted towards helping us reach our goal!

And, guess what, the learning at MBCM is still continuing...





R' Dovid Kaplan Making Siyum & Farbrengen for Shoshim of his Mother A"H

R' Dovid Kaplan will be making a farbrengen and siyum Mishnayos in honor of the Shloshim of  his mother A"H, Dubba bas Avrohom Yitzchok, this Thursday night after the 9:30 PM Maariv minyan at Tzemach Tzedek.

All men are invited to participate especially those that took upon themselves to learn Mishnayos.

I also want to sincerely thank everyone that participated in the Mishnayos just in case they cannot make it Thursday night and use this invitation as a reminder to finish their Mishnayos asap.

Mazel Tov Silversteins!

Mazel tov to Rabbi Yisroel and Mushkie Silverstein on the birth of a baby girl!

Shifra and Puah arranges homemade meals from people in the community for mothers of newborn children from our community. If you are able to cook a meal, please sign up on MealTrain or contact Karen Schild at karenschild@yahoo.com or 845-354-4898.

Sunday, January 12, 2014

Gartel Gemach

There are currently many thin gartels missing from Rabbi Shusterman’s Gartel Gemach at Tzemach Tzedek. 

Please check your inside jacket pockets for a gartel you may have borrowed and mistakenly forgot to return.

Please do so ASAP so that there are gartels available for others and for you! 

Mrs. Nava Susskind Sitting Shiva

Boruch Dayan HaEmes - We are deeply saddened to inform you of the passing of Mrs. Rose Berlant, the mother of Mrs. Nava Susskind.

Mrs. Susskind will be sitting shiva at her home, 201 West Maple Avenue, from this Tuesday,  January  14, until this Friday, January 17, from 12:00 PM until 8:00 PM. 

We realize that some of our friends are uncomfortable with our dogs so the dogs will not be in our living room from 2:00 to 4:00 PM.

.המקום ינחם אתכם בתוך שאר אבלי ציון וירושלים

Friday, January 10, 2014

Special Yud Shvat Avos U'Banim Melava Malka This Motzai Shabbos

In honor of Yud Shvat the annual Avos U'Banim Melave Malka will be held this Motzai Shabbos Parshas Beshalach after the regular learning period.

The learning time will be shortened a bit to allow time for the Melave Malka.

The Melave Malka is being sponsored by the Amram family in honor of the upcoming Bar Mitzva of Menachem Mendel Amram on 12 Shvat. Mazal Tov to the Amram family! May they enjoy much Chassidishe nachas from Menachem Mendel and all of their children!

Thursday, January 9, 2014

Parsha Perspective

By Rabbi Yisroel Shusterman, Dean, Cheder Chabad of Monsey

The story is told of the cantor who was approached after the synagogue services by an indignant member of the congregation.

"That was the most awful rendition I ever heard in my life!"

The president of the synagogue turned to the cantor to console him: "Oh don't worry about him, he just repeats what everyone else says!"

The Torah portion this week Beshalach (Shmos [Exodus] 13:17-17:16) speaks of the song which Moses and the Israelites sang after the redemption from Egypt and the miraculous splitting of the sea. The verse states that "Then Moses and the children of Israel sang this song to G-d..." (Shmos [Exodus]15:1)

The Talmud tells us that according to Rabbi Akiva, Moses said the first few words of the verse, "For He has triumphed gloriously" and everybody responded, "I will sing to G-d". They continued to respond with this refrain "I will sing to G-d" after each verse that Moses sang.

According to Rabbi Eliezer, however, Moses sang "I will sing to G-d," and everybody responded, repeating "I will sing to G-d". They continued, with the entire congregation repeating each verse after their leader.

Rabbi Nechemiah’s opinion is that Moses began by singing the opening words of the song, following which each person sang the rest of the song on their own.

These three opinions represent three different degrees of leadership and ability to inspire.

Rabbi Akiva is showing us a scenario where the people are totally given over to their leader. He alone sings the song of gratitude to G-d, with the people simply affirming everything he is expressing.

Although it may appear to be the ultimate unity, with everybody united behind one cause, Rabbi Eliezer takes this is unity yet further. According to him, they did not merely affirm by repeating the same refrain, but they actually repeated the words themselves. Each individual was able to internalize the words, becoming a reflection of that person's own deep feelings. The very same words, expressed by hundreds of thousands of different people, took on the many different nuances, depending on the individual person.

Rabbi Nechemiah takes leadership to the ultimate level. If it is really coming from their own deepest, essential being, why should they need to repeat it after somebody? According to Rabbi Nechemiah's view, Moses merely started them off with a few words of the song, thereby inspiring them to reach deep within and experience the miracle, with the result that each of them sang the entire song on their own.

True leadership is about empowering others to tune in, to be in harmony with the leader and the ideals being expressed and lived, thereby becoming leaders in their own right !

This weekend (January11) in the Jewish calendar, is 10 Shvat, marking the 64th anniversary of the passing of the Rabbi Yosef Yitzchok Schneerson, the previous Lubavitcher Rebbe OBM (in 1950) and the ascent to leadership of Rabbi Menachem M Schneerson,  OBM. To quote former Chief Rabbi of the UK, Rabbi Jonathan Sacks, after having had audience with the Rebbe, “The world was wrong. When they thought that the most important fact about the Rebbe was that here was a man with thousands of followers, they missed the most important fact: That a good leader creates followers, but a great leader creates leaders”!

The Rebbe was indeed a great leader!

(Excerpts from Chabad.org - by Rabbi Mordechai Wollenberg)

May you have a meaningful and uplifting Shabbos!

Yud Shvat Farbrengen at Tzemach Tzedek This Shabbos

There will be a grand Yud Shvat seudah and farbrengen following davening this Shabbos at Tzemach Tzedek.

A full Shabbos meal will be served and the farbrengen will be lead by Rabbi Lesches and Rabbi Markowitz.

There will also be extra lainings starting at 8:30 AM.

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

Siyum HaRambam & Farbrengen on Wednesday Night

There will be a Siyum HaRambam and Farbrengen this Wednesday night, 7 Shvat, January 8, following the 9:30 PM Maariv minyan at Tzemach Tzedek.

R' Manis Friedman to Farbreng for Women in Honor of Chof Beis Shvat

In honor of Chof Beis Shvat there will be a special Melave Malka farbrengen with Rabbi Manis Friedman on Motzai Shabbos Parshas Mishpatim, January 25.

Additional details will be posted shortly.

We are looking for sponsors for this exciting event. You may sponsor in honor of someone or just because!
  • Gold Sponsor - $180 
  • Silver sponsor - $100
  • Bronze Sponsor - $54 
 Please email nsheichabadmonsey@gmail.com to sponsor.

Monday, January 6, 2014

N'shei Chabad Bookstore Update

Preparing for Yud Shevat:
Basi L'Gani: English/Hebrew (Rabbi Green), Hebrew (Rabbi Green), English (Kehos)
Maamarim and Kuntresim of the Frierdiker Rebbe
Likutei Diburim - Volume 6 - English
Likutei Diburim - Yiddish
Memoirs

Preparing for Chof Beis Shevat:
Biography of Rebbetzin Chaya Mushka - Special Sale Price
DVD - Rebbetzin Chaya Mushka

Come visit our expanded selection at our new location, 211A Kearsing Parkway!

Please call 845-558-8249 or 845-352-2736 for more information.

Be Included in the Updated Community Directory

Our Anash community has B”H expanded tremendously over the past few years to several hundred families and growing. We at Cheder Chabad of Monsey are proud and thankful that our Mossad has had the zchus of encouraging and enabling Chabad families to move to Monsey by offering a warm Lubavitcher chinuch for their children.

A majority of our Anash families have businesses that they manage on a full or part time basis. Construction contractors, plumbers, electricians, shoe retailers, insurance brokers, mortgage brokerages, title companies, caterers, bakers, graphic design, photography, videography, the list goes on and on. Given the right price and quality, we would all certainly want to give our business to those in our community but all too often we have no idea what is available or how to contact the business owners.

The Monsey Anash Directory Project was launched to respond to the needs of our growing community. The Directory will contain an updated listing of all our Anash families as well as a goods and services directory. There will also be opportunities to place formal advertisements for a very nominal charge.

If you would like to be listed in the Directory, please copy and past the form below, complete it, and email it to directory@chedermonsey.org  Let us know if you would like to advertise in the directory and we will be in touch.

Sincerely,

Yeruchem Cohen, Boruch Greenwald, Shloime Litzman, Michal Rimler and Chaim Schild
The Anash Directory Committee

Chabad-Lubavitch of Monsey Directory Entry Form

Please choose and update below what you would like displayed in a printed directory listing.
Name(s):
1.
2.
Street address:
Mailing address (if not same):
Email(s):
1.
2.
Home phone:

Cell phone(s):
1.
2.
Business phone:
Would you be interested in taking out a formal ad (full page to business card) in the Chabad-Lubavitch of Monsey directory for a nominal charge?

Please copy and past the above questions and your responses and email it to directory@chedermonsey.org.

Shabbos Yud Shvat at Heichal Menachem


Friday, January 3, 2014

Parsha Perspective

By Rabbi Yisroel Shusterman, Dean, Cheder Chabad of Monsey

The words ring out again and again in the biblical account of the Exodus story, as Moses repeatedly demands of the unrelenting Pharaoh that he grant the Jewish people their freedom, in the Torah portion this week    Bo (Shmos [Exodus] 10:1- 13:16).
Actually, the precise words that Moses conveys to the stubborn monarch in the name of G‑d are, “Shalach ami v’yaavduni,” “Let My people go so that they may serve Me.” (Exodus 10:3)

It is interesting to see how some expressions and phrases become memorable and popular, while others just don’t seem to catch on. “Let My People Go” became the theme song for the story of Egypt and the Exodus way beyond the Jewish community. It has been used as a catchphrase for a variety of political causes. Unfortunately, the last Hebrew word of the phrase somehow got lost in the shuffle: v’yaavduni—“that they may serve Me”—never quite made it to the top of the charts. The drama of the Exodus captures our imagination, while the fact that that the purpose of leaving Egypt was to go to Sinai, receive G‑d’s Torah and fulfill Jewish destiny is less emphasized. The call to freedom excites the human spirit; the challenge of service and commitment, by contrast, doesn’t seem to elicit as much enthusiasm.

One might remember back  in the early ’70s, when Jews the world over were demonstrating for their oppressed brethren in the then Soviet Union, demanding of the Russian government that they allow Jews the freedom to leave if they wanted to. Their rallying cry was, “Let My People Go!” Sadly, they left out the v’yaavduni. We were so concerned about political liberties that we forgot a primary purpose of being free: to enjoy religious freedom and live fulfilled Jewish lives.

Indeed, for so many of our Russian brethren, obtaining their exit visas and acquiring freedom of movement did little to help them reclaim their spiritual heritage and identity. Seventy years of organized atheism behind the Iron Curtain left their toll. We are delighted that they can live in Israel (or Brighton Beach), but the fact remains that far too many remain outside of the Jewish community and its spiritual orbit.

It is clear that political freedom minus spiritual purpose equals disillusionment. Leaving Egypt without the vision of Sinai would be getting all dressed up with nowhere to go. It is not enough to let our people go. We have to take them somewhere. “That they may serve Me” means that we need to use our political freedom to experience the freedom and fulfillment of faith, and a life of spiritual purpose dedicated to G‑d’s service; to realize our destiny, achieve our goal and indeed be a “light unto the nations”.

(Excerpts from Chabad.org - by Rabbi Yossy Goldman)

 May you have a meaningful and uplifting Shabbos!

Thursday, January 2, 2014

Motzai Shabbos Farbrengen with R' Shmuel Klein

R' Shmuel Klein will be hosting a Melava Malka - farbrengen this Motzai Shabbos at 7:30 PM at his home, 22 Jeffrey Place, where he will speak about his recent inspiring trip to Haditch for Chof Daled Teves.